French education system
- Pre-school education (up to 6 years);
- Primary education (6 - 11 years);
- Secondary education (11-18 years);
- Ends test on a bachelor's degree;
- Higher education.
Kindergartens accept children from 2 years (subject to availability) and up to 6 years. Preschool education is not compulsory, but almost all children aged 3 to 6 years attend kindergarten.
Consolidated view of the fact that kindergartens - the biggest success of French educational system. In addition, the interior is decorated in classes according to age characteristics of students who stay in them like the children here receive a foundation of communication between themselves and with the older, get a lot of useful skills and good manners in society, etc. In kindergarten there three age groups:
- The first junior (2 - 4 years), where children learn to play;
- The second medium (4-5 years), in which children acquire skills in sculpting, grasp the basics of drawing, the participation of communicating with each other;
- The third oldest (5 - 6 years) is a preparatory group for school, where children learn the basics of reading, writing, numeracy.
The gardens are usually work five days a week, six hours a day (three in the morning and three in the afternoon). In the major cities - from early morning until 18 - 19 hours, including during the holidays, because most parents in this period of work, and children need supervision.
Elementary school teaches children to 14 years and is the last stage of compulsory education. At the end of the cycle of primary school students take the exams for a certificate of primary education (certificat d'etudes primaire, CEP).
Primary education covers five years (6-11 years old (if the child has no problems with their studies) and includes:
- Preparatory Course (CP);
- The first year introductory course (CE1);
- The initial rate for the second year (CE2);
- Average rate of the first year (CM1);
- Average rate for the second year (CM2).
Training lasts 27 hours per week (9-12 hour., And 14 chas.do 17): Four days a week and on Saturday morning. On Wednesday and Sunday, the children rest.
It should be noted that formally prohibited in elementary school homework, but practically it is universally implemented.
In schools, children are actually enrolled in the so-called mixed classes (with both girls and boys), but the old school buildings can still be seen the inscription "A School for Boys" or "School for Girls."
As a rule, all items in a class conducted by one teacher.
Secondary education in France consists of two blocks: the first cycle of education (college) and the second cycle of training.
The first training cycle
6, 5 classes - a series of observations.
All the children come to the college, through the same training program and are required to study one of the living languages.
At the end of fifth grade, some children who have serious problems adapting to school or having a different level of mental retardation, to a special section of training.
4, 3 classes - a series of orientation.
Children begin learning a second living foreign language and can choose from an additional Latin, Greek or other languages.
At the end of grade 3 students take exams to obtain a certificate of completion of college (previously - BEPC).
After a 3-class orientation of further education does not depend on the availability of certificates of completion of college. It is the main goal and main focus in training, since more students can continue their studies either on so-called short cycle training or a long.
A decision on the future direction (orientation) study of students makes the class council, after consultation with the students and their families. Parents may request review of the decision if it will seem to them unreasonable.
In some colleges are special sections for teaching children with different types of developmental and behavioral abnormalities. They recruit teachers with professional training.
Typically, these sections are called SEGPA.
The second short cycle vocational education.
Professional lyceums LEP (analogue of our PTU) prepare students for two years to a professional diploma.
CAP (vocational training certificate) is issued to students who have mastered a particular profession.
BEP (General Certificate of Vocational Education) is preparing to work in certain areas, for example, in the hotel industry, transport, etc.
In the French system of vocational education and general education have a greater separation than in other countries, and because of this circumstance, vocational education has a low value in the eyes of society and students.
LEP has a bad image in society, as is the right way to a low social status and low pay. This is because for many years for this cycle of training went poorly achievers.
Among the students receiving BEP, nearly half still learning to take the exam at the bachelor's degree ("pot"), thanks to the so-called transition classes.
The second long cycle training (high school).
Lyceum is preparing for three years for the exam at the Bachelor's degree:
The second class is the so-called indeterminate class, ie not yet have specific expertise.
The first class has a lot of areas - training branches, leading to different kinds of undergraduate degree. After the first class of students pass the test in French, the estimate for which is calculated by taking the exam for a bachelor's degree.
"Terminal", or the last class of Lyceum exam ends on a bachelor's degree.
"Buck", as he briefly referred to the French, not a diploma, but is of great importance, because in the future lead to higher education.
Higher education is available only with a bachelor's degree. French education system has taken several forms: short and long cycles, training in high schools (Grandes ecoles), universities.
Higher education (short cycle).
Let's start with education, usually covering two years, and so-called short-cycle higher education. It is in demand in society, as it enables a real and rapid employment.
Usually, the employer chooses its future workers on the basis of competition dossier, because candidates for the position is greater than the available vacancies.
The following types of educational institutions short-cycle:
1. Separation of higher technical education in high schools. They are ready to receive the BTS (brevet de technicien superieur) - diploma of higher technical education.
2. University Institutes of Technology (institut universitaire de technologie) are working at universities and lead to the getting DUT (diplome universitaire de technologie) - University of Technology diploma.
3. Specialized schools prepare for 2-3 years in the field of health and social services (midwives, nurses, masseurs, kinezioterapevty, etc.).
Higher Education (long cycle).
Universities are the only institutions that accept all applicants without preliminary selection (although secretly and illegally there is selection on estimates for a bachelor's degree), so the universities are often students who have not received in other schools.
More than half of the bachelors go to university, but about 40% of them drop out within the first year.
Probably going to university without having a bachelor's degree by passing a special examination to the university (ESEU), but this is permissible only in limited cases and only for experienced professionals with extensive experience of practical work.
Except for a few confessional all universities are public.
University education has three cycles:
The first cycle in two years is ready to receive DEUG (diploma of general university education), but which has no practical value in the labor market.
The second cycle is preparing to license (licence) for one year after DEUG and maitrise (the year after licence).
Was recently also established the possibility of obtaining vocational education: MST (maitrises des sciences et techniques) and Master (les magisteres), where the training lasts three years.
The third cycle is divided into two branches:
1. DESS (Diploma of specialized higher education), who is a professional diploma, preparation for which lasts for one year after earning a degree maitrise and includes training and practice.
2. DEA (diploma of advanced study) - is teaching research.
Upon receipt of the DEA (one year) can be prepared in scientific work (these) is minimal for two years.
The study of medicine and pharmaceuticals is a special education section, which takes place in CEU (university hospital centers), and at the same university provides the theoretical training, and the hospital - practical skills.
Medical studies continue 2-10 years. At the end of first year students take a very difficult exam, and just successfully passed his training can continue.